Egyptian Mythology

EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY

AMUN-RA – GOD OF THE SUN, TIME AND CREATIVITY Ra is primarily depicted as a man in artwork, wearing a pharaoh’s crown (a sign of his kingship over the deities) and the sun disk on his head. Often he had a falcon’s head, much like Horus. Sometimes, Ra is portrayed differently according to the position of the sun in the sky. At sunrise he was the young boy Khepri, at noon the falcon-headed man Harakhty, and at sunset the elder Atum. This constant aging was suggested by the Egyptians as the reason Ra stayed separate from the world and let Osiris or Horus rule in his place. This idea is often coupled with the myth in which Isis is able to trick an elderly Ra, having ruled on earth as a human pharaoh, into revealing his secret name, and thus the secret of his power. Ra shared many of his symbols with other solar deities, in particular Horus

OSIRISGOD OF LIFE, DEATH AND FERTILITY Osiris was usually depicted as a green-skinned (green was the color of rebirth) pharaoh wearing the Atef crown, a form of the white crown of upper Egypt with a plume of feathers to either side. Typically he was also depicted holding the crook and flail which signified divine authority in Egyptian pharaohs, but which were originally unique to Osiris, and his feet and lower body were wrapped, as though already partly mummified. Osiris was tricked by his brother Set whom murdered him by locking him in a coffin and then dismembering his body. Isis, Osiris’s wife later found 12 of the 13 pieces of his body; reattached them and then sang songs to ressurect him. Thus Osiris became the first mummy and creator of the afterlife.

SETANCIENT GOD OF THE DESERT, CHAOS AND STORMS Set was the god of the desert. Set was viewed as immensely powerful, and was regarded consequently as the chief god. Set carried the epithet, “His Majesty”, shared only with Ra. Another common epithet was, of great of strength, and in one of the Pyramid Texts it states that the king’s strength is that of Set. He was the protector of Ra while Ra traveled through the underworld each night and battled the serpent Apep. He became jealous of his brother Osiris and murdered him then dismembered his body and spread the pieces along the nile. Thus Set became the god of Death, Secrets, and the Underworld. He is represented by the Set animal, a mix of jackle, aardvark and gazelle but also associated with snakes and serpents.

ISISWIFE OF OSIRIS, GODDESS OF NATURE, ART AND MAGIC Isis is celebrated as the ideal mother and wife, patron of nature and magic; friend of slaves, sinners, artisans, the downtrodden, as well as listening to the prayers of the wealthy, the maiden, the aristocrat and emperor. In union with her husband and brother Osiris she conceived Horus. Isis was instrumental in the resurrection of Osiris when he was murdered by Set. The goddess Isis was the first daughter of Geb, god of the Earth, and Nut, the goddess of the Overarching Sky, and was born on the fourth intercalary day, correspondence having been made in the modern calendar with July the 17th. She is also known as the goddess of simplicity, from whom all Beginnings arose, and as the Lady of bread, of beer and of green fields. Ancient Egyptians believed that the Nile flooded every year because of her tears of sorrow for her dead husband, Osiris. She is represented with headress of an empty throne that which belonged to Osiris.

HORUSGOD OF THE SKY, SUN AND MOON, WAR AND HUNTING, TRAVEL Horus was an ancient and important deity, son of Osris and Isis. The Eye of Horus became an important Egyptian symbol of power. He is represented by a man’s body and a falcon’s head with the combined crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. After Set killed his brother, Osiris; Horus was told by his mother Isis, to protect the people of Egypt from Set, the god of the underworld. Horus had many battles with Set, not only to avenge his father, but to chose the rightful ruler of Egypt. One scene stated how Horus was on the verge of killing Set; but his mother stopped him. Isis injured Horus, but eventually healed him. Thus Horus and Set battled for eighty years. In the struggle Set had lost a testicle, explaining why the desert, which Set represented, is infertile. Horus’ left eye had also been gouged out, which explained why the moon, which it represented, was so weak compared to the sun. As Horus was the ultimate victor he became known as ‘Horus the Great’. The Elder Gods bestowed upon him lordship over all of Egypt, the sun and moon, war, hunting and traveling.

Horus’ battles with Set united Egypt and bestowed divinity upon the pharaoh. There after pharaohs were viewed as the incarnation of Horus.

HORUS’ EPITHETS : THE DISTANT ONE, HE OF ONE EYE, HORUS THE GREAT, LORD OF THE PERCH, HE WHO TRAVELS, HE WITHOUT EYES

ANUBISGOD OF DEATH, MUMMIFICATION AND THE AFTERLIFE Anubis is the son of Osiris and Nephthys, the wife of Set. The story goes that Nephthys, lonely and unnoticed by Set, set out to disguise herself as Isis, Set’s sister and object of desire. But as Set was infertile, he rejected her still. Then Osiris mistook the disguised Nephthys for his wife and they give birth to Anubis. Anubis is a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife. He is usually depicted as a black jackal sitting atop a tomb holding the sacred flail. He is charged with protecting the souls of the dead that have been deemed worthy of the afterlife. The determination of worthiness is a process of which the heart of the deceased is wieghted and measured. ANUBIS’ EPITHETS : GUARDIAN OF THE VEIL OF DEATH

HATHORGODDESS OF THE MILKY WAY, THE PATH/ HOSTESS OF HEAVEN Hathor, wife of Amun-Ra, is represented as a bovine-headed goddess with red dress and carring an Anhk and Was-scepter. The path to heaven is said to be the milk flowing from her bossom and she greets the souls with honey, bread and wine.

NUTGODDESS OF THE NIGHT SKY AND PROTECTOR OF THE DEAD Wife of Geb and mother to Osiris, Set, Isis and Nephthys. The souls of the dead she protects become the stars within her body.

GEBGOD OF EARTH AND NATURE Husband of Nut and father of Set, Osiris, Isis and Nephthys. All the fruits and beasts of the land sprout from his body.

Egyptian Mythology

The Obelisk Prophecy Konkahunch